Different types of cabbage have common qualities that make them more or less desirable for different purposes. For example, some types are more resistant to disease, while others are better able to tolerate cold temperatures.
Some varieties of cabbage produce larger fruits, while others have a more desirable flavor and different texture. Choosing the right variety of cabbage for your needs is important to get the best results.
⬇️ Table of Contents
- Types of Cabbage
- Savoy Cabbage
- Red Savoy Cabbage
- Red Cabbage
- Green Cabbage
- Cannonball Cabbage
- Napa Cabbage
- Bok Choy
- Brussels Sprouts
- Danish Ballhead Cabbage
- Gonzales Cabbage
- Dutch White Cabbage
- Parel Cabbage
- Kale (Leaf Cabbage)
- Tuscan Cabbage
- January King Cabbage
- Portuguese Cabbage (Couve Tronchuda)
- Earliana Cabbage
- Golden Acre Cabbage
- Early Jersey Wakefield Cabbage
- Red Acre Cabbage
- Brunswick Cabbage
- Charleston Wakefield Cabbage
- Late Flat Dutch Cabbage
- Mammoth Red Rock
- Rubicon Cabbage
- Bilko Cabbage
- Kohlrabi Cabbage
- Cabbage FAQs
Types of Cabbage
Cabbage is a leafy green or purple biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. oleracea, and is closely related to broccoli, cauliflower, collard greens, savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, and kale. Cabbage heads generally range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms (1 to 9 lb), and can be green, purple, or white.
Smooth leaves and firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed red and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors seen more rarely. It is a multi-layered vegetable. Under long sunlit days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, they can grow much larger. Some records are given with heads up to 38 kilograms (84 lb).
Cabbage was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC. By the Middle Ages, cabbage had become a prominent part of European cuisine. Cabbage heads are generally picked during the first year of the plant's life cycle, but plants intended for seed are allowed to grow a second year and produce seedlings. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies and multiple pests, and bacterial and fungal diseases.
Savoy is characterized by its crinkly exterior. It is a member of the Brassicaceae cabbage family, which includes other cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and kale. Savoy is thought to have originated in the Mediterranean region, and it has been cultivated for centuries in Europe.
The crinkly cabbage leaves of savoy are dark pale green and slightly bitter in flavor. Then there's the red savoy with red leaves. When cooked, they become more tender and sweet. Savoy cabbage can be eaten raw or cooked and is often used in soups and stews.
Red Savoy Cabbage
Red Savoy cabbage is a different variety because it is red and curly. People have been eating this kind of cabbage for a long time. Some say it is the best kind of cabbage for making salads and slaws. It is also good for cooking.
Green red savoy cabbage is an excellent source of vitamins B6, K, and C and dietary fiber. It also contains a compound called sulforaphane, which has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including cancer prevention.
Consider savoy if you're looking for nutritious and delicious cabbage outer leaves to add to your next meal. It's a versatile ingredient that can be used in various recipes and is packed with nutrients that are good for your health.
Savoy Cabbage calories - a cup of chopped, raw contains 36 calories.
A member of the brassica family, Red cabbage is a relative of broccoli, brussels sprouts, and kale. It is an excellent source of vitamins C and K and a good source of fiber. Red cabbage can be eaten raw or cooked, and its flavor is slightly sweeter than green cabbage.
When selecting red cabbage, look for redheads with deep purple leaves with crisp green color. Avoid those that are wilted or have brown spots. Red cabbage will keep in the refrigerator for up to two weeks when stored in a plastic bag.
To prepare, remove the cabbage's outer leaves and trim the bottom of the stalk. Cut the cabbage into thin slices or shred it using a knife or mandoline. Red cabbage can be enjoyed raw in salads or slaws or cooked in various dishes.
Red cabbage is often used in coleslaws and salads, but it can also be cooked in various ways. It can be stir-fried, sautéed, roasted, or braised. It is often used in German and Eastern European cuisine. Some popular dishes include sauerkraut, bigos (Polish hunter's stew), and kimchi (Korean fermented cabbage).
When cooking red cabbage, it is important to add acidity to help balance its sweetness. This can be done by adding vinegar, lemon juice, or tomato sauce. Red cabbage pairs well with bacon, apple, horseradish, caraway seeds, and potatoes.
Savoy Cabbage calories - One cup of chopped, raw contains 43 calories.
Green cabbage is a cool weather crop that thrives in temperate climates. This hardy cabbage can be grown in various soil types but prefers well-drained, fertile soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0. Green cabbage can be direct seeded or started indoors 4-6 weeks before the last frost date. Seeds should be planted ½-1" deep in rows that are 18-24" apart. Thin seedlings to 12-18" apart when they are 4-6 weeks old. It is ready to harvest 60-70 days after planting.
To harvest, cut the cabbage's green heads at the base of the plant with a sharp knife. Store in a cool, dry place. Cabbage can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 2 weeks.
Cabbage is a nutrient-rich vegetable that is an excellent source of vitamins C and K. It also contains fiber, manganese, and potassium. It can be eaten raw, cooked, or pickled. It is a common type used in salads, slaws, and stir-fries.
The Cannonball cabbages are a variety of green cabbage called “Brassica oleracea capitata f. alboglabra.” This particular type has been cultivated since the early 1900s, and it was originally developed because of its tight packing of leaves. These are easy to grow and keep well throughout the winter. They do best in full sun but don’t mind light shade. They like rich soil that drains well.
Cannonball cabbages are very hardy plants and can survive temperatures down into the single digits Fahrenheit (-18 Celsius). They prefer cooler weather to many varieties of cabbage. When you plant your seeds, you want to give them plenty of room to grow. Space them about 12 inches apart. If you live in areas where there is frost, you might want to start them indoors eight weeks earlier than usual. Once they reach maturity, harvest your cabbages every few days while they are still young.
Napa, known as Chinese cabbage, is a common green type used in Asian cuisine. Considered a pointed cabbage that has tightly packed leaves. It has a milder flavor than other varieties and can be eaten raw or cooked. Napa cabbage is a good source of vitamins A, C, and K, fiber, and calcium.
Napa cabbage can be found in most grocery stores year-round, but it is best to buy it during the fall and winter months when it is in season. When selecting a head of napa cabbage, look for one that is crisp and has fresh-looking tender leaves. Avoid ones that are wilted or have brown spots.
To store, place it in the crisper drawer of your refrigerator, where it will keep fresh for up to one week. Napa cabbage can be eaten raw or cooked. To prepare it, wash the cabbage and slice it into thin strips. It can then be added to salads, stir-fries, or other dishes.
Napa cabbage is a versatile ingredient that can be used in a variety of dishes. Try using it in place of lettuce in a sandwich or wrap, or add it to your favorite soup or stew recipe. You can also shred it and use it as a healthy alternative to pasta or rice in your next meal.
Savoy cabbage calories - One cup of chopped, raw savoy contains 27 calories.
Bok Choy is a type of Chinese cabbage that is grown for food. It is different from other cabbages because it doesn't form a head. Instead, it has green color leaves that grow in a cluster. The flavor of bok choy is similar to spinach or water chestnuts. It is popular in southern China and other parts of Asia. Bok choy is winter-hardy, which means it can be grown in colder climates.
One of the benefits of bok choy is that it contains various vitamins and minerals. For example, it is a good source of Vitamin C, beta-carotene, and calcium. It also contains antioxidants, which can help protect the body against disease.
There are many different ways how to cook Bok Choy. It can be stir-fried, sauteed, or steamed. It can also be eaten raw, in a salad, or as a wrap. Bok choy is a versatile ingredient used in many different dishes.
A variety of cabbage, known as Brussels sprouts, produces edible buds. These are usually 1.5-4.0 cm wide and look like tiny cabbages. The Brussels sprout has been popular in Brussels, Belgium, for a long time and gets its name from there. It first appeared in northern Europe during the 5th century but wasn't cultivated until the 13th century near Brussels, Belgium. Its group name Gemmifera means "bud-producing."
The Brussels sprouts we eat now were probably first grown in Belgium in the 13th century. There is a written reference to them from 1587. They became popular in the southern Netherlands and spread to other cool parts of Europe. You can tell when Brussels sprouts are ready for harvest because they grow like buds on a stalk, and the harvest season is usually from September to March, depending on where you live. They taste the sweetest after a frost. You can freeze them without affecting their quality.
This vegetable is a good source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin C, potassium, and folic acid. It is also a member of the cruciferous vegetables cabbage family, known for its cancer-preventing properties.
Danish Ballhead Cabbage
There is the Danish Ballhead that was introduced in 1887. It is a dependable variety that resists bolting and splitting and keeps until late spring. It produces round, blue-green, seven to eight-inch diameter heads weighing five to seven pounds. It is adapted to the Northeast and does well in mountainous areas.
This cabbage was originally from Denmark, where people have been growing it for over 50 years. When it was first introduced in America, the company that brought it said it was "remarkable" and an "extra choice." The green color heads are hard as they can be, round as a ball, of good marketable size, of extra choice quality, very fine-grained, and remarkably good keepers.
Gonzales cabbage is also a great choice for mini cabbage heads that are dense, uniform, and have a sweet and spicy taste. This cabbage matures much quicker than its full-sized counterparts, so you can expect to eat your mini heads within two months. Gonzales cabbage is cold and hardy, so you can grow it in spring, fall, or winter. The seeds will germinate within 7 to 12 days. You can also grow Gonzales cabbage in a container.
Dutch White Cabbage
Dutch White cabbage has many positive properties, including a great taste, a large fruit size, high yield, and resistance to various diseases and pests. However, they have some disadvantages: the plant needs timely feeding, some early-maturing types easily crack, and it's important to give them proper care to get a good harvest. There are many different varieties of winter cabbage from Dutch breeders with unique characteristics, such as the large fruit size. So choosing the best Dutch variety shouldn't be too difficult.
Parel cabbage is a great hybrid cabbage variety for your vegetable garden. It is a new variety with great features, like a compact form, split resistance, and short maturity time. It is easy to grow, so it is good for both novices and experienced gardeners.
You can start Parel from seed and have mature heads of cabbage in just six weeks. This particular hybrid is good for growing in small spaces. So, if you have limited space, this cabbage variety is for you.
Kale (Leaf Cabbage)
Kale can come in many popular varieties, with leaves ranging from purple to dark green.
Kale plants originated in the eastern Mediterranean and Anatolia, where they were grown beginning by 2000 BCE at the latest. The central leaves do not form a head like regular cabbage does. Kales are considered closer to wild cabbage than most of the many domesticated forms of Brassica oleracea.
Curly-leaved common green varieties of cabbage already existed along with flat-leaved varieties in Greece in the 4th century BC. These forms, referred to by the Romans as Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales. The earliest record of cabbages in western Europe is of hard-heading cabbage in the 13th century. Records in 14th-century England distinguish between hard-heading cabbage and loose-leaf kale.
Tip to differentiate between the kale varieties according to the stem's low, intermediate, or high length and the variety of leaf types. The leaf colors range from light green to dark green, violet-green, and violet-brown.
Classification by leaf type:
- Curly-leaf (Scots kale, blue curled kale)
- Plain-leaf (flat-leaf types like red Russian and white Russian kale)
- Leaf and spear, or feathery-type leaf (a cross between curly- and plain-leaf)
- Ornamental (less palatable and tougher)
The "Tuscan", this cabbage is also known as varieties of kale like the Lacinato kale, is a variety of cabbage with a long tradition in Italian cuisine. It has dark blue-green cabbage leaves with an embossed texture and a slightly sweeter and more delicate taste than curly kale. Tuscan is sometimes called dinosaur kale because its bumpy exterior may resemble what dinosaur skin looked like.
It's commonly served in types of pasta and soups, though it may also be eaten raw in salads and slaws. In Tuscan cuisine, Lacinato kale is frequently utilized in ribollita (literally: "reboiled"), a thick, hearty soup consisting of ingredients cooked the day before.
Tuscan cabbage has been cultivated in Tuscany for several years. It's also known as Tuscan kale, Italian kale, dinosaur kale, flat back kale, palm tree kale, or black Tuscan palm. Lacinato kale has been cultivated in Tuscany for hundreds of years and is a key component of minestrone and ribollita.
Lacinato kale has dark blue-green leaves with an "embroidered texture" and a taste that is "slightly sweeter and more delicate" than curly kale but "slightly bitter earthy." It grows up to 90 centimeters (3 ft) tall.
January King Cabbage
January King is blue-green leaves with a purple or red blush. It is an intermediate cultivar between Savoy and white cabbage. This type has been cultivated in England since 1867 and grows best in winter weather. The heads weigh 3-5 pounds and make a great addition to salads, soups, or stews. While January King cabbage is not as widely known, it is a delicious and nutritious vegetable worth trying.
Portuguese Cabbage (Couve Tronchuda)
Couve Tronchuda, also known as Portuguese cabbage, is popular in Portugal. Couve Tronchudahas a strong flavor; its leaves are thick and slightly bitter. This type is usually green but can also be found in other colors, such as red or purple.
Unlike most, this plant does not form heads and grows in leaves rather than forming heads. As a result, it is also known as the "Portuguese kale plant."
Succulent leaves, midrib and stalk, and fleshy stems distinguish this green vegetable from kale. Collards are frequently compared to this vegetable.
Couve Tronchudais is a cool weather crop, and it grows best in temperatures that are between 60 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. It is typically planted in the spring, and it takes about two months for the cabbage to mature. When harvesting Couve Tronchuda, it is important to wait until the leaves are firm and have a deep color. If picked too early, they will be tough and bitter.
They can be eaten raw or cooked; they are especially good steamed or boiled. Some people like to add them to soups or stews.
Portuguese cabbage is a great source of vitamins A and C and fiber. It is also a good source of minerals, including potassium and manganese.
Earliana is a quick-growing, early variety of cabbage perfect for cooler climates. It is round, compact, deep green, and has a sweet, mild flavor. Earliana cabbage can tolerate light frost and will mature in about 60 days. It is a great choice for a first-crop or a late-summer/early-winter crop in mild climates. When growing Earliana cabbage, remember that it is a cool-weather vegetable.
It will bolt (go to seed) if temperatures rise above 80 degrees Fahrenheit (27 degrees Celsius). For best results, start seeds indoors 6-8 weeks before the last frost date, transplanting to the garden when seedlings are 4-6 inches tall. Space plants 18-24 inches apart, in rows 30-36 inches apart.
Provide consistent moisture, especially during head formation. Apply a layer of mulch around plants to help retain moisture and discourage weeds. Cabbage green heads are ready to harvest when they are 4-5 inches in diameter. Cut the stem about an inch below the bottom of the head using a sharp knife or pruning shears.
Earliana cabbage is best eaten fresh but will keep for up to two weeks in the refrigerator. Enjoy this delicious and nutritious vegetable in salads, slaws, or cooked dishes. With its early maturity and sweet flavor, Earliana is a great addition to any home garden.
Golden Acre Cabbage
The Golden Acre is a smooth, firm variety of cabbage that is prized for its early maturity and compact size. This cultivar matures in about 60 to 65 days, making it one of the first cabbages harvested from the spring garden. Early Golden Acre plants yield heads weighing 3-5 pounds (1-2 kg.). These heads are very firm, making them ideal for slaw and stir fry preparations.
The first cabbage to be harvested from the garden in the spring, this variety matures in approximately 60 to 65 days. Early Golden Acre plants produce heads that weigh between 3 and 5 pounds (1-2 kg.). These heads are highly firm, making them ideal for slaw and stir fry preparation.
This is an heirloom variety with 2-3 lb heads on compact plants. This makes it a great choice for containers or smaller green gardens. It is also ideal for closer plant spacing in larger, in-ground gardens. The crisp, crunchy texture makes it a fantastic choice for salads and stir-fries recipes.
If you are looking for an early, compact variety packed with flavor, the Golden Acre cabbage is a great option for your garden.
Early Jersey Wakefield Cabbage
The New Jersey Wakefield is an heirloom variety of cabbage that was originally from England. It is a quick producer of large, dense, elongated heads with a sweet flavor. The heads weigh 2-3 pounds and have a small core. This variety is ideal for eating raw in salads or slaws, cooking, or pickling.
It prefers cool weather and ample moisture. The best time to plant it is in the spring or fall. New Jersey Wakefield cabbage has been a reliable favorite for US gardens since the 1840s, especially in northern climates. Peter Henderson sold this very early variety commercially in the late 1860s. It is a tasty, sweet, flavorful cabbage that is perfect for adding to any dish.
Red Acre Cabbage
Red Acre is an early maturing, heirloom cabbage with fantastic red-purple heads that store well.
It's resistant to fusarium yellows and cabbage yellow leaves disease, so it won't break apart. The Red Acre is ideal for tiny gardens since it doesn't grow as significantly as other types and produces one compact, dense head with each plant.
Take note that it is sensitive to light and can get sunburned in hot weather, so we recommend growing it in spring or fall.
Plant as soon as the soil can be worked. Plant early in the season for optimum results and a fall crop. When growing seeds in late summer, you may reap a harvest as well. Leaves may become bitter in hot weather, so grow them in the fall and winter if your garden is located in Zone 9 or above.
Brunswick cabbage is a German heirloom that was first imported to the United States in 1824. It is a great choice for autumn planting, as it flourishes in the cooler temperatures of fall and winter. The Brunswick variety is large and drum-shaped, with dense, firm heads 6-9 lbs. in size.
This is a favorite choice for making sauerkraut and stores well for long periods. It takes 90 days to reach maturity, so calculate accordingly in your area. Cold and frost give the Brunswick head a sweeter flavor. Brunswick is becoming rare as winter cabbage growth decreases. For many years it was a favorite for making sauerkraut, but now it is facing extinction. It is a shame for this specimen to disappear, so let's learn more about growing this plant.
Brunswick cabbage thrives in cooler temperatures and should be planted in autumn. It prefers full sun but can also tolerate partial shade. The soil should be well-drained and rich in organic matter. Brunswick is a heavy feeder and will benefit from regular fertilizer applications during the growing season.
Water the plants regularly, especially during dry spells. When the heads are mature, cut them from the plant with a sharp knife. Store the heads in a cool, dark place until you are ready to use them.
Charleston Wakefield Cabbage
The Charleston Wakefield is a variety of cabbage developed in the United States in the early 1900s. Its large, round heads and thick, white leaves used are characterized as leafy white greens. The Charleston Wakefield cabbage is popular in coleslaw and other dishes where a crisp, crunchy texture is desired. This cabbage variety is also relatively easy to grow, making it a good choice for home gardens.
The Charleston Wakefield was developed by crossing two other varieties: the Wakefield cabbage and the Savoy cabbage. The resulting hybrid was then named after the city of Charleston, South Carolina, where it was first cultivated. The Charleston Wakefield cabbage is now grown in many parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, and North America.
This type is relatively disease-resistant, meaning it is less likely to be affected by pests or diseases than other cabbage varieties. This variety is also relatively tolerant of cold temperatures, making it a good choice for growing in cooler climates.
The Charleston Wakefield cabbage can be harvested from late summer through early winter. When selecting a cabbage head, look for one that forms a cabbage head that is heavy for its size and has crisp, green leaves. Avoid heads that are yellowing or have wilted leaves. Once harvested, the cabbage can be stored in a cool, dark place for up to two months.
Late Flat Dutch Cabbage
Late Flat Dutch was first developed in the Netherlands in the 18th century. The leaves are flat and have a slightly sweet taste. This type of cabbage is usually available from June to August as it is a late-season variety known for its large, flat heads and firm texture. Late Flat Dutch cabbage is a popular choice for making sauerkraut and kimchi, and it can also be cooked or eaten raw.
It is a hardy vegetable that can withstand cold weather. Late Flat Dutch cabbage is high in vitamin C and potassium. It has a slightly sweet flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked.
Mammoth Red Rock
Mammoth Red Rock is a large heirloom cabbage that was introduced in 1889. Known as Red Danish before 1906, this cabbage produces large, beautiful deep red-purple heads with a fine flavor. They are also very colorful and keep well, making them a great choice for both fresh and cooked dishes. This variety is well adapted to most growing conditions and is a reliable performer in the garden.
Rubicon cabbage is typically green or purple, and its leaves are thick and crunchy. The flavor is slightly peppery and tangy, with a hint of sweetness.
The history of Rubicon cabbage can be traced back to the Roman era. It is believed that Emperor Augustus Caesar first tasted this while campaigning in the city of Rubicon, and he was so impressed with its flavor that he had it shipped back to Rome. Then, Rubicon cabbage became a popular staple in the Roman diet.
Historically, Rubicon has grown in various parts of Europe, including Germany, France, and Italy. This kind of cabbage has only recently become available in the United States. It is now used in a variety of cuisines across the world.
It can be eaten raw in salads and slaws, cooked in stir-fries or soups, or even pickled. No matter how it is enjoyed, Rubicon cabbage is a delicious and nutritious vegetable with a long history of popularity.
The Bilko is grown in the mountains of central Asia. It's a tough plant that can survive cold temperatures and doesn't need much water. The leaves of the Bilko Cabbage are thick and leathery, and the stem is short and stout. The plant generates tiny yellow blossoms that develop into circular green fruits.
This is used in many Asian dishes, such as stir-fries, soups, and stews. Bilko Cabbage has a mild flavor and a crunchy texture. When raw, it has a slightly bitter taste.
The Bilko Cabbage is an excellent source of vitamins A and C, fiber, and potassium. It has another component, sulforaphane, which research suggests has anti-cancer effects. Therefore, the Bilko Cabbage is delicious and good for your health!
Kohlrabi cabbage is a low, stout cultivar of wild cabbage. Despite its common names, it is not the same species as turnip, although both are in the Brassica genus. The first European written record is by the botanist Mattioli in 1554. Kohlrabi cabbage was most likely introduced to North America by early German settlers.
It grows best in temperate climates with cool summers. The plant can grow about 12 inches high (30 cm) and have a diameter of about 6 inches (15 cm). The edible portion is a swollen stem or bulb that is 2-4 inches (5-10 cm) in diameter. Kohlrabi cabbage has a mild flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked. It is often used in salads and as a garnish. Kohlrabi cabbage can also be pickled or mashed and used as a side dish.
How to Choose the Best Cabbage
When it comes to cabbage, there are many different types to choose from. So, how do you know which is the best for your needs? Here are a few things to keep in mind when making your selection:
- Cabbage heads come in many different sizes. Choose one that is the right size for the dish you're preparing.
- The outer leaves of cabbage can be either green or pale green. If you want a more delicate flavor, go for the pale green leaves. If you're looking for something with a little more punch, go for the green leaves.
- Savoy cabbage has crinkly leaves. It has a slightly sweeter flavor than other varieties of cabbage.
- Green cabbage is the most common variety. It has a crisp texture and a mildly sweet flavor.
- There are many other varieties of cabbage, such as red cabbage and napa cabbage. Explore all the options to find the perfect one for your needs.
What Is The Most Common Type of Cabbage?
The most common cabbage is green cabbage. It has a firm, crisp texture and a mild, slightly sweet flavor. Green cabbage is the type most often used in salads and coleslaw. It is a member of the Brassica oleracea family, including broccoli, cauliflower, kale, and Brussels sprouts. Green cabbage is the most popular in the United States.
Which Cabbage Is Best?
There are many cabbages, and it can be hard to decide which one to choose. Some people prefer the taste of savoy cabbage, while others find that regular green cabbage is more flavorful. Ultimately, it comes down to personal preference.
Which Cabbage is Most Nutritious?
All are highly nutritious, but savoy cabbage is generally considered the most nutrient-rich. This dark green cabbage is especially rich in vitamins A and C, fiber, and antioxidants.
Which Cabbage Is The Sweetest?
There are many, and they can vary in sweetness. Some of the sweeter varieties include Savoy cabbage, Napa cabbage, and Brussels sprouts.
Which Cabbage Is Best For Coleslaw?
There are many varieties of cabbage, but the two most common types used for coleslaw are green cabbage and red cabbage.
- Green cabbage is the more traditional choice and has a slightly sweet flavor.
- Red cabbage is a bit more tart and has a beautiful purple color that can add visual interest to your dish.
What Is The Classification Of Cabbage?
Cabbage is a leafy vegetable belonging to the Brassica family, including broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts.